Hamadryas baboon

The Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas) is a species of Old World monkey native to the Horn of Africa and the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula. Here’s a description of the Hamadryas baboon and its distribution:

Description of the Hamadryas Baboon:

  • Appearance: Hamadryas baboons are large, terrestrial monkeys with a distinctive appearance. They have a robust build, with a dog-like muzzle, long limbs, and a short tail. Males are significantly larger than females and have a striking mane of long, silver-gray fur around their neck and shoulders. Females and juveniles have shorter fur and lack the prominent mane.
  • Size: Adult male Hamadryas baboons can weigh between 15 to 30 kilograms (33 to 66 pounds) and measure up to 70 centimeters (27.5 inches) in length, excluding the tail. Adult females are smaller, weighing between 10 to 15 kilograms (22 to 33 pounds).
  • Behavior: Hamadryas baboons are highly social animals that live in multi-level social groups known as troops. Troops typically consist of a dominant male, several females, and their offspring. The troop structure is hierarchical, with males maintaining control over their females and defending their territory from rival males.
  • Habitat: Hamadryas baboons inhabit a range of habitats, including rocky hillsides, savannas, woodlands, and semi-desert areas. They are well-adapted to arid environments and can survive in areas with limited access to water. They are often found near cliffs and rocky outcrops, which provide shelter and protection from predators.
  • Diet: Hamadryas baboons are omnivores and have a varied diet that includes fruits, leaves, seeds, insects, small vertebrates, and occasionally scavenged meat. They forage on the ground and in trees, using their dexterous hands and strong jaws to manipulate food items.
  • Reproduction: Breeding in Hamadryas baboons occurs throughout the year, with females giving birth to a single infant after a gestation period of around 6 months. Infants are cared for by their mothers and other members of the troop, and they are weaned at around 6 to 12 months of age.
  • Conservation Status: The Hamadryas baboon is classified as a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). While they face some threats, including habitat loss, hunting, and human-wildlife conflict, they are relatively widespread and adaptable to a range of environments.


  • Hamadryas baboons are native to the Horn of Africa, including countries such as Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Somalia.
  • They are also found in the southwestern tip of the Arabian Peninsula, including Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
  • Within their range, Hamadryas baboons inhabit various habitats, from semi-desert areas to mountainous regions. They are often found in close proximity to human settlements, where they may raid crops or scavenge food scraps.
  • While they are still relatively common in some parts of their range, Hamadryas baboons face threats such as habitat destruction, poaching, and conflict with humans, particularly in areas where their habitat overlaps with agricultural land or urban development. Conservation efforts, including habitat protection and community education programs, are essential for ensuring the long-term survival of this species.

Hamadryas baboon in Zoos

Login Account

Already a Giraffe Customer?

Invaild email address.

6 or more characters, letters and numbers. Must contain at least one number.

Your information will nerver be shared with any third party.