Wreathed hornbill

The wreathed hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus), also known as the bar-pouched wreathed hornbill, is a large bird belonging to the family Bucerotidae, native to Southeast Asia. Here’s a description of the wreathed hornbill and its distribution:

Description of the Wreathed Hornbill:

  • Appearance: The wreathed hornbill is characterized by its large size, striking plumage, and distinctive casque on top of its bill. It has predominantly black feathers with white or cream-colored markings on its wings and belly. The most notable feature is the casque, which is a hollow structure made of keratin, located above the bill. Males and females have similar plumage, but males typically have larger casques.
  • Size: Adult wreathed hornbills can reach lengths of up to 80 to 130 centimeters (31 to 51 inches) from the tip of their bill to the end of their tail. They have a wingspan of approximately 100 to 130 centimeters (39 to 51 inches).
  • Behavior: Wreathed hornbills are social birds that are often seen in pairs or small groups. They are known for their loud, raucous calls, which they use to communicate with each other and defend their territory. Like other hornbill species, they are primarily frugivorous, feeding on a diet of fruits and occasionally insects.
  • Habitat: Wreathed hornbills inhabit tropical and subtropical forests, including lowland rainforests, montane forests, and forested hillsides. They are typically found in areas with dense vegetation and access to fruiting trees, which provide them with food and nesting sites.
  • Diet: The diet of wreathed hornbills consists mainly of fruits, including figs, berries, and other fleshy fruits. They play an important role in seed dispersal, as they consume fruits and then excrete the seeds over a wide area, helping to regenerate the forest.
  • Reproduction: Breeding in wreathed hornbills typically occurs during the dry season. Males and females engage in elaborate courtship displays, including aerial acrobatics and vocalizations. Females seal themselves inside a tree cavity using mud, leaving only a small opening through which the male can pass food to her and the chicks. After the chicks fledge, the female breaks out of the nest cavity, and the family group continues to forage together.
  • Conservation Status: The wreathed hornbill is currently classified as a species of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). However, like many hornbill species, it faces threats such as habitat loss, deforestation, and hunting for its casque and feathers.


  • The wreathed hornbill is found in various countries across Southeast Asia, including Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam.
  • Within its range, wreathed hornbills inhabit a variety of forested habitats, including tropical rainforests, montane forests, and wooded hillsides.

Wreathed hornbills are iconic birds of Southeast Asian forests, valued for their beauty and ecological importance. Efforts to conserve their habitat and protect them from threats are essential for ensuring their continued survival in the wild.

Wreathed hornbill frog in Zoos

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